Why Optimization derived_merge can Break Your Queries

MySQL optimizer bugs

MySQL optimizer bugsLately, I worked on several queries which started returning wrong results after upgrading MySQL Server to version 5.7 The reason for the failure was derived merge optimization which is one of the default

optimizer_switch
  options. Issues were solved, though at the price of performance, when we turned it
OFF
 . But, more importantly, we could not predict if any other query would start returning incorrect data, to allow us to fix the application before it was too late. Therefore I tried to find reasons why
derived_merge
  can fail.

Analyzing the problem

In the first run, we turned SQL Mode

ONLY_FULL_GROUP_BY
on, and this removed most of the problematic queries. That said, few of the queries that were successfully working with
ONLY_FULL_GROUP_BY
  were affected.

A quick search in the MySQL bugs database gave me a not-so-short list of open bugs:

At first glance, the reported queries do not follow any pattern, and we still cannot quickly identify which would break and which would not.

Then I took a second look by running all of the provided test cases in my environment and found that for four bugs, the optimizer rewrote the query. For three of the bugs, it rewrote in both 5.7 and 8.0, and one case it rewrote in 8.0 only.

The remaining three buggy queries (Bug #85117, Bug #91418, Bug #91878) have things in common. Let’s first look at them:

  1. Bug #85117
    select
        temp.sel
    from
        table1 t1
        left join (
            select *,1 as sel from table1_use t1u where t1u.`table1id`=1
        ) temp on temp.table1id = t1.id
    order by t1.value
  2. Bug #91418
    select
        TST.UID ,TST.BID ,TST.THING_NAME ,TST.OTHER_IFO ,vw2.DIST_UID
    from
        TEST_SUB_PROBLEM TST
        join (
            select uuid() as DIST_UID, vw.*
            from (
                select DISTINCT BID, THING_NAME
                from TEST_SUB_PROBLEM
            ) vw
        ) vw2
    on vw2.BID = TST.BID;
  3. Bug #91878
    SELECT
        Virtual_Table.T_FP AS T_FP,
        (
            SELECT COUNT(Virtual_Table.T_FP)
            FROM t1 t
            WHERE t.f1 = Virtual_Table.T_FP
            AND Virtual_Table.T_FP = 731834939448428685
        ) AS Test_Value
    FROM (
        SELECT t.f1 AS T_FP, tv.f1 AS TV_FP
        FROM t1 AS t
        JOIN t2 AS tv
        ON t.f1 = tv.t1_f1
    ) AS Virtual_Table
    GROUP BY
        Virtual_Table.TV_FP
    HAVING
        Test_Value > 0;

Two of the queries use

DISTINCT
  or
GROUP BY
 , one uses
ORDER BY
  clause. The cases do not have not the same clause in common—which is what I’d expect to see—and so, surprisingly, these are not the cause of the failure. However, all three queries use generated values: a constant in the first one;
UUID()
  and
COUNT()
  functions in the second and third respectively. This similarity is something we need to investigate.

To find out why

derived_merge
  might work incorrectly for these queries we need to understand how this optimization works and why it was introduced.

The intent behind derived_merge

First I recommend checking the official MySQL User Reference Manual and MariaDB knowledge base. It is correct to use both manuals: even if low-level implementations vary, the high-level architecture and the purpose of this optimization are the same.

In short:

derived_merge
  is used for queries that have subqueries in the 
FROM
  clause,  also called “derived tables” and practically converts them into
JOIN
 queries. This optimization allows avoiding unnecessary materialization (creating internal temporary tables to hold results). Virtually this is the same thing as a manual rewrite of a query with a subquery into a query that has
JOIN
 clause(s) only. The only difference is that when we rewrite queries manually, we can compare the expected and actual result, then adjust the resulting query if needed. The MySQL optimizer has to do a correct rewrite at the first attempt. And sometimes this effort fails.

Let’s check why this happens for these particular queries, reported in the MySQL Bugs Database.

Case Study 1: a Query from Bug #85117

Original query

select
      temp.sel
from
    table1 t1
    left join (
         select *,1 as sel from table1_use t1u where t1u.`table1id`=1
    ) temp on temp.table1id = t1.id
order by t1.value

was rewritten to:

Note (Code 1003):
/* select#1 */
select 1 AS `sel`
    from
        `test`.`table1` `t1`
    left join
        (`test`.`table1_use` `t1u`)
    on(((`test`.`t1`.`id` = 1) and (`test`.`t1u`.`table1id` = 1)))
    where 1
    order by `test`.`t1`.`value`;

You can always find a query that the optimizer converts the original one to in the

SHOW WARNINGS
 output following
EXPLAIN [EXTENDED]
 for the query.

In this case, the original query asks to return all rows from the table

table1
 , but selects only the generated field from the subquery. The subquery selects the only row with
table1id=1
 .

Avoiding derived merge optimization is practically the same as joining table

table1
 with a table with one row. You can see how it works in this code snippet:

mysql> create temporary table temp as select *,1 as sel from table1_use t1u where t1u.`table1id`=1;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)
Records: 1  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0
mysql> select * from temp;
+----+----------+------+-----+
| id | table1id | uid  | sel |
+----+----------+------+-----+
|  1 |        1 |   99 |   1 |
+----+----------+------+-----+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
mysql> select temp.sel from table1 t1 left join temp on temp.table1id = t1.id order by t1.value;
+------+
| sel  |
+------+
|    1 |
| NULL |
| NULL |
+------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

However, when the optimizer uses derived-merge optimization, it completely ignores the fact that the resulting table has one row, and that the calculated value would be either

NULL
  or 1 depending if a row corresponding to
table1
  exists in the table. That it prints
select 1 AS `sel`
  in the
EXPLAIN
  output while uses
select NULL AS `sel`
  does not change anything: both are wrong. The correct query without a subquery should look like:

mysql> select if(`test`.`t1u`.`table1id`, 1, NULL) AS `sel`
    -> from `test`.`table1` `t1`
    -> left join (`test`.`table1_use` `t1u`)
    -> on(((`test`.`t1`.`id` = 1) and (`test`.`t1u`.`table1id` = 1)))
    -> where 1
    -> order by `test`.`t1`.`value`;
+------+
| sel  |
+------+
|    1 |
| NULL |
| NULL |
+------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

This report is the easiest of the bugs we will discuss in this post, and is also fixed in MariaDB.

Case Study 2: a Query from Bug #91418

mysql> select * from TEST_SUB_PROBLEM;
+-----+--------+------------+---------------------+
| UID | BID    | THING_NAME | OTHER_IFO           |
+-----+--------+------------+---------------------+
|   1 | thing1 | name1      | look a chicken      |
|   2 | thing1 | name1      | look an airplane    |
|   3 | thing2 | name2      | look a mouse        |
|   4 | thing3 | name3      | look a taperecorder |
|   5 | thing3 | name3      | look an explosion   |
|   6 | thing4 | name4      | look at the stars   |
+-----+--------+------------+---------------------+
6 rows in set (0.00 sec)
mysql> select
    ->     TST.UID ,TST.BID ,TST.THING_NAME ,TST.OTHER_IFO ,vw2.DIST_UID
    -> from
    ->     TEST_SUB_PROBLEM TST
    -> join (
    ->     select uuid() as DIST_UID, vw.*
    ->     from (
    ->         select DISTINCT BID, THING_NAME
    ->         from TEST_SUB_PROBLEM
    ->     ) vw
    -> ) vw2
    -> on vw2.BID = TST.BID;
+-----+--------+------------+---------------------+--------------------------------------+
| UID | BID    | THING_NAME | OTHER_IFO           | DIST_UID                             |
+-----+--------+------------+---------------------+--------------------------------------+
|   1 | thing1 | name1      | look a chicken      | e4c288fd-b29c-11e8-b0d7-0242673a86b2 |
|   2 | thing1 | name1      | look an airplane    | e4c28aef-b29c-11e8-b0d7-0242673a86b2 |
|   3 | thing2 | name2      | look a mouse        | e4c28c47-b29c-11e8-b0d7-0242673a86b2 |
|   4 | thing3 | name3      | look a taperecorder | e4c28d92-b29c-11e8-b0d7-0242673a86b2 |
|   5 | thing3 | name3      | look an explosion   | e4c28ed9-b29c-11e8-b0d7-0242673a86b2 |
|   6 | thing4 | name4      | look at the stars   | e4c29031-b29c-11e8-b0d7-0242673a86b2 |
+-----+--------+------------+---------------------+--------------------------------------+
6 rows in set (0.00 sec)

This query should create a unique

DIST_UID
  for each unique
BID
 name. But, instead, it generates a unique
ID
  for each row.

First, let’s split the query into a couple of queries using temporary tables, to confirm our assumption that it was written correctly in the first place:

mysql> create temporary table vw as select DISTINCT BID, THING_NAME from TEST_SUB_PROBLEM;
Query OK, 4 rows affected (0.01 sec)
Records: 4  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0
mysql> select * from vw;
+--------+------------+
| BID    | THING_NAME |
+--------+------------+
| thing1 | name1      |
| thing2 | name2      |
| thing3 | name3      |
| thing4 | name4      |
+--------+------------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)
mysql> create temporary table vw2 as select uuid() as DIST_UID, vw.* from vw;
Query OK, 4 rows affected (0.01 sec)
Records: 4  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0
mysql> select * from vw2;
+--------------------------------------+--------+------------+
| DIST_UID                             | BID    | THING_NAME |
+--------------------------------------+--------+------------+
| eb155f0e-b29d-11e8-b0d7-0242673a86b2 | thing1 | name1      |
| eb158c05-b29d-11e8-b0d7-0242673a86b2 | thing2 | name2      |
| eb159b28-b29d-11e8-b0d7-0242673a86b2 | thing3 | name3      |
| eb15a916-b29d-11e8-b0d7-0242673a86b2 | thing4 | name4      |
+--------------------------------------+--------+------------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)
mysql> select
    -> TST.UID ,TST.BID ,TST.THING_NAME ,TST.OTHER_IFO ,vw2.DIST_UID
    -> from TEST_SUB_PROBLEM TST
    -> join vw2
    -> on vw2.BID = TST.BID;
+-----+--------+------------+---------------------+--------------------------------------+
| UID | BID    | THING_NAME | OTHER_IFO           | DIST_UID                             |
+-----+--------+------------+---------------------+--------------------------------------+
|   1 | thing1 | name1      | look a chicken      | eb155f0e-b29d-11e8-b0d7-0242673a86b2 |
|   2 | thing1 | name1      | look an airplane    | eb155f0e-b29d-11e8-b0d7-0242673a86b2 |
|   3 | thing2 | name2      | look a mouse        | eb158c05-b29d-11e8-b0d7-0242673a86b2 |
|   4 | thing3 | name3      | look a taperecorder | eb159b28-b29d-11e8-b0d7-0242673a86b2 |
|   5 | thing3 | name3      | look an explosion   | eb159b28-b29d-11e8-b0d7-0242673a86b2 |
|   6 | thing4 | name4      | look at the stars   | eb15a916-b29d-11e8-b0d7-0242673a86b2 |
+-----+--------+------------+---------------------+--------------------------------------+
6 rows in set (0.01 sec)
mysql> select distinct DIST_UID
    -> from (
    ->     select
    ->         TST.UID ,TST.BID ,TST.THING_NAME ,TST.OTHER_IFO ,vw2.DIST_UID
    ->     from TEST_SUB_PROBLEM TST
    ->     join vw2
    ->     on vw2.BID = TST.BID
    -> ) t;
+--------------------------------------+
| DIST_UID                             |
+--------------------------------------+
| eb155f0e-b29d-11e8-b0d7-0242673a86b2 |
| eb158c05-b29d-11e8-b0d7-0242673a86b2 |
| eb159b28-b29d-11e8-b0d7-0242673a86b2 |
| eb15a916-b29d-11e8-b0d7-0242673a86b2 |
+--------------------------------------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

With temporary tables, we have precisely four unique

DIST_UID
  values unlike the six values that our original query returned.

Let’s check how the original query was rewritten:

Note (Code 1003):
/* select#1 */
select
    `test`.`TST`.`UID` AS `UID`,
    `test`.`TST`.`BID` AS `BID`,
    `test`.`TST`.`THING_NAME` AS `THING_NAME`,
    `test`.`TST`.`OTHER_IFO` AS `OTHER_IFO`,
    uuid() AS `DIST_UID`
from `test`.`TEST_SUB_PROBLEM` `TST`
join
    (/* select#3 */
    select
        distinct `test`.`TEST_SUB_PROBLEM`.`BID` AS `BID`,
        `test`.`TEST_SUB_PROBLEM`.`THING_NAME` AS `THING_NAME`
    from `test`.`TEST_SUB_PROBLEM`) `vw`
where (`vw`.`BID` = `test`.`TST`.`BID`)

You can see that the optimizer did not wholly remove the subquery here. Let’s run this modified query, and run a test with a temporary table one more time:

mysql> select
    ->     `test`.`TST`.`UID` AS `UID`,
    ->     `test`.`TST`.`BID` AS `BID`,
    ->     `test`.`TST`.`THING_NAME` AS `THING_NAME`,
    ->     `test`.`TST`.`OTHER_IFO` AS `OTHER_IFO`,
    ->     uuid() AS `DIST_UID`
    -> from
    ->     `test`.`TEST_SUB_PROBLEM` `TST`
    -> join
    -> (/* select#3 */
    ->     select
    ->         distinct `test`.`TEST_SUB_PROBLEM`.`BID` AS `BID`,
    ->         `test`.`TEST_SUB_PROBLEM`.`THING_NAME` AS `THING_NAME`
    ->     from
    ->         `test`.`TEST_SUB_PROBLEM`
    -> ) `vw`
    -> where (`vw`.`BID` = `test`.`TST`.`BID`)
    -> ;
+-----+--------+------------+---------------------+--------------------------------------+
| UID | BID    | THING_NAME | OTHER_IFO           | DIST_UID                             |
+-----+--------+------------+---------------------+--------------------------------------+
|   1 | thing1 | name1      | look a chicken      | 12c5f554-b29f-11e8-b0d7-0242673a86b2 |
|   2 | thing1 | name1      | look an airplane    | 12c5f73a-b29f-11e8-b0d7-0242673a86b2 |
|   3 | thing2 | name2      | look a mouse        | 12c5f894-b29f-11e8-b0d7-0242673a86b2 |
|   4 | thing3 | name3      | look a taperecorder | 12c5f9de-b29f-11e8-b0d7-0242673a86b2 |
|   5 | thing3 | name3      | look an explosion   | 12c5fb20-b29f-11e8-b0d7-0242673a86b2 |
|   6 | thing4 | name4      | look at the stars   | 12c5fc7d-b29f-11e8-b0d7-0242673a86b2 |
+-----+--------+------------+---------------------+--------------------------------------+
6 rows in set (0.01 sec)

This time the changed query result is no different to the one we received from the original one. Let’s manually replace the subquery with temporary tables, and check if it affects the result again.

mysql> create temporary table vw
    -> select
    ->     distinct `test`.`TEST_SUB_PROBLEM`.`BID` AS `BID`,
    ->     `test`.`TEST_SUB_PROBLEM`.`THING_NAME` AS `THING_NAME`
    -> from `test`.`TEST_SUB_PROBLEM`;
Query OK, 4 rows affected (0.01 sec)<br>Records: 4  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0
mysql> select * from vw;
+--------+------------+
| BID    | THING_NAME |
+--------+------------+
| thing1 | name1      |
| thing2 | name2      |
| thing3 | name3      |
| thing4 | name4      |
+--------+------------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)
mysql> select
    ->     `test`.`TST`.`UID` AS `UID`,
    ->     `test`.`TST`.`BID` AS `BID`,
    ->     `test`.`TST`.`THING_NAME` AS `THING_NAME`,
    ->     `test`.`TST`.`OTHER_IFO` AS `OTHER_IFO`,
    ->      uuid() AS `DIST_UID`
    -> from `test`.`TEST_SUB_PROBLEM` `TST`
    -> join vw where (`vw`.`BID` = `test`.`TST`.`BID`) ;
+-----+--------+------------+---------------------+--------------------------------------+
| UID | BID    | THING_NAME | OTHER_IFO           | DIST_UID                             |
+-----+--------+------------+---------------------+--------------------------------------+
|   1 | thing1 | name1      | look a chicken      | e11dbe61-b2a0-11e8-b0d7-0242673a86b2 |
|   2 | thing1 | name1      | look an airplane    | e11dc050-b2a0-11e8-b0d7-0242673a86b2 |
|   3 | thing2 | name2      | look a mouse        | e11dc1af-b2a0-11e8-b0d7-0242673a86b2 |
|   4 | thing3 | name3      | look a taperecorder | e11dc2be-b2a0-11e8-b0d7-0242673a86b2 |
|   5 | thing3 | name3      | look an explosion   | e11dc3a8-b2a0-11e8-b0d7-0242673a86b2 |
|   6 | thing4 | name4      | look at the stars   | e11dc4e9-b2a0-11e8-b0d7-0242673a86b2 |
+-----+--------+------------+---------------------+--------------------------------------+
6 rows in set (0.00 sec)

In this case, the temporary table contains the correct number of rows: 4, but the outer query calculates a 

UUID
  value for all rows in the table
TEST_SUB_PROBLEM
 . It does not take into account that the user initially asks for a unique
UUID
  for each unique
BID
  and not each unique
UID
 . Instead, it just moves a call of
UUID()
  function into the outer query, which creates a unique value for each row in the table
TEST_SUB_PROBLEM
 . It does not take into account that the temporary table contains only four rows. In this case, it would not be easy to build an effective query that generates distinct
UUID
  values for rows with different
BID
 ‘s and the same
UUID
  values for rows with the same
BID
 .

Case Study 3: a Query from Bug #91878

This query is supposed to calculate a number of rows based on complex conditions:

SELECT
Virtual_Table.T_FP AS T_FP,
(SELECT COUNT(Virtual_Table.T_FP) FROM t1 t WHERE t.f1 = Virtual_Table.T_FP AND Virtual_Table.T_FP = 731834939448428685) AS Test_Value
FROM
(SELECT t.f1 AS T_FP, tv.f1 AS TV_FP FROM t1 AS t JOIN t2 AS tv ON t.f1 = tv.t1_f1) AS Virtual_Table
GROUP BY Virtual_Table.TV_FP
HAVING Test_Value > 0;

However, it returns no rows when it should return 22 (check the bug report for the full test case).

mysql> SELECT Virtual_Table.T_FP AS T_FP,
    -> (
    ->     SELECT
    ->         COUNT(Virtual_Table.T_FP)
    ->     FROM t1 t
    ->     WHERE
    ->         t.f1 = Virtual_Table.T_FP
    ->     AND
    ->         Virtual_Table.T_FP = 731834939448428685
    -> ) AS Test_Value
    -> FROM (
    ->     SELECT
    ->         t.f1 AS T_FP, tv.f1 AS TV_FP
    ->     FROM t1 AS t
    ->     JOIN t2 AS tv
    ->     ON t.f1 = tv.t1_f1
    -> ) AS Virtual_Table
    -> GROUP BY Virtual_Table.TV_FP
    -> HAVING Test_Value > 0;
Empty set (1.28 sec)

To find out why this happens let’s perform a temporary table check first.

mysql> create temporary table Virtual_Table SELECT t.f1 AS T_FP, tv.f1 AS TV_FP FROM t1 AS t JOIN t2 AS tv ON t.f1 = tv.t1_f1;
Query OK, 18722 rows affected (2.12 sec)
Records: 18722  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0
mysql> SELECT Virtual_Table.T_FP AS T_FP,
    -> (SELECT COUNT(Virtual_Table.T_FP) FROM t1 t
    -> WHERE t.f1 = Virtual_Table.T_FP AND Virtual_Table.T_FP = 731834939448428685) AS Test_Value
    -> FROM  Virtual_Table GROUP BY Virtual_Table.TV_FP HAVING Test_Value > 0;
+--------------------+------------+
| T_FP               | Test_Value |
+--------------------+------------+
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
+--------------------+------------+
22 rows in set (1.62 sec)

The rewritten query returned the correct result, as we expected.

To identify why the original query fails, let’s check how the optimizer rewrote it:

Note (Code 1003):
/* select#1 */
select
    `test`.`t`.`f1` AS `T_FP`,
    (/* select#2 */
        select
            count(`test`.`t`.`f1`)
        from
            `test`.`t1` `t`
        where
            (('731834939448428685' = 731834939448428685)
        and (`test`.`t`.`f1` = 731834939448428685))
    ) AS `Test_Value`
    from
        `test`.`t1` `t`
    join
        `test`.`t2` `tv`
    where
        (`test`.`tv`.`t1_f1` = `test`.`t`.`f1`)
    group by `test`.`tv`.`f1`
    having (`Test_Value` > 0)

Interestingly, when I run this query on the original tables it returned all 18722 rows that exist in table

t2
 .

This output means that we cannot entirely rely on the 

EXPLAIN
  output. But still we can see the same symptoms:

  • Subquery uses a function to generate a value
  • Subquery in the
    FROM
      clause is converted into a 
    JOIN
    , and its values are accessible by an outer subquery

We also see that the query has

GROUP BY
  and
HAVING
  clauses, thus adding a complication.

The query is almost correct, but in this case, the optimizer mixed aliases: it uses the same alias in the internal query as in the external one. If you change the alias from

t
  to
t2
  in the subquery, the rewritten query starts returning correct results:

mysql> select
    ->     `test`.`t`.`f1` AS `T_FP`,
    -> (/* select#2 */
    ->     select
    ->         count(`test`.`t`.`f1`)
    ->     from
    ->         `test`.`t1` `t`
    ->     where (
    ->         ('731834939448428685' = 731834939448428685)
    ->     and
    ->         (`test`.`t`.`f1` = 731834939448428685)
    ->     )
    -> ) AS `Test_Value`
    -> from
    ->     `test`.`t1` `t`
    -> join
    ->     `test`.`t2` `tv`
    -> where
    ->     (`test`.`tv`.`t1_f1` = `test`.`t`.`f1`)
    -> group by `test`.`tv`.`f1`
    -> having (`Test_Value` > 0);
...
| 731834939454553991 |          1 |
| 731834939453739998 |          1 |
+--------------------+------------+
18722 rows in set (0.49 sec)
mysql> select
    ->     `test`.`t`.`f1` AS `T_FP`,
    -> (/* select#2 */
    ->     select
    ->         count(`test`.`t`.`f1`)
    ->     from
    ->         `test`.`t1` `t2`
    ->     where (
    ->         (t2.f1=t.f1)
    ->     and
    ->         (`test`.`t`.`f1` = 731834939448428685)
    ->     )
    -> ) AS `Test_Value`
    -> from
    ->     `test`.`t1` `t`
    -> join
    ->     `test`.`t2` `tv`
    -> where
    ->     (`test`.`tv`.`t1_f1` = `test`.`t`.`f1`)
    -> group by `test`.`tv`.`f1`
    -> having (`Test_Value` > 0);
+--------------------+------------+
| T_FP               | Test_Value |
+--------------------+------------+
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
| 731834939448428685 |          1 |
+--------------------+------------+
22 rows in set (1.82 sec)

While the calculated value is not the reason why this query returns incorrect results, it is similar to the previous examples because the optimizer does not take in account that the value of

`test`.`t`.`f1`
  in the outer query is not necessarily equal to 731834939448428685.

Is also interesting that neither Oracle nor PostgreSQL accept such a query, and instead complain of improper use of the 

GROUP BY
 clause. Meanwhile, MySQL accepts this query even with SQL Mode set to
ONLY_FULL_GROUP_BY
 . Reported as bug #92020.

Conclusion and recommendations

While

derived_merge
  is a very effective optimization, it can rewrite queries destructively. Safety measures when using this optimization are:

  1. Make sure that you use the latest version of MySQL/Percona/MariaDB servers which include all of the new bug fixes.
  2. Generated values for the subquery results either constant or returned values of functions is the red flag.
  3. Relaxing SQL Mode
    ONLY_FULL_GROUP_BY
      is always dangerous and should not be used together with
    derived_merge
    .

As a last resort, you can consider rewriting queries to

JOIN
  manually or turning
derived_merge
  optimization
OFF
 .

 

The post Why Optimization derived_merge can Break Your Queries appeared first on Percona Database Performance Blog.

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